Freedom of expression in Indian journalism – a reality or myth?


The rampant violence against journalists in India, who become the victims of the wrath of powerful politicians and their followers has resulted in a consistent fall in India’s rank in the global Press Freedom Index ( In 2017, India’s rank plumetted three ranks down to 136 and in 2018 dropped further to 138, in a list of 180 countries.

The so-called largest democracy in the world has constantly failed to protect its journalists from censorhip and bodily harm. The disgraceful and documented record marks journalism as one of the most dangerous jobs in India — 142 journalists were attacked in just the two years to 2015, and 70 journalists were killed in the 24 years to 2016. Outspoken journalist Gauri Lankesh was shot as she was entering her house in Bengaluru on 5 September 2017. Even after the public’s plea to the government to bring to justice the brutal murderers of journalists, not a single murder of journalists has been solved in India in the last 10 years, according to a report on The Hindustan Times wesbite.

Nevertheless, the Indian constitution recognizes freedom of speech and expression to all in [Article 19(1)(a)]. The article does not explicitly mention freedom of press but it is made clear that it is inclusive of freedom of press and circulation.

In November 2018, the Cable News Network (CNN) filed a lawsuit in the US District Court in Washington DC, against the White House when the press pass of its White House reporter Jim Acosta was taken away – violating CNN’s and Acosta’s first amendment rights. However, the court immediately ruled in favor of CNN and the White House was made to reinstate Acosta’s press pass. And in spite of some blustering by Trump himself about establishing guidelines for white house press conferences, the entire matter has been dropped.

In India, a defamation case was filed by BJP President Amit Shah’s son Jay Shah against The Wire and its journalists in October 2017 for the article ‘The golden touch of Jay Amit Shah.’ The article cited from public records that Jay Amit Shah’s company’s revenues sky-rocketed from Rs 50,000 to over Rs 80,00,00,000 in a single year – a16,000 times rise in the year following the election of Prime Minister Narendra Modi. Especally onerous was a gag order forbidding further reports on the story. The court denied the gag order and asked Jay Shah and The Wire to settle the defamation suit amongst themselves. Significantly, The Wire declined to apologize but agreed to provide a clarification and the article was not removed from its website.

In both the cases, the courts showed their support for the freedom of expression and upheld the rights of journalists to report the truth. The right to a free press is the foundation of a democracy. However, the patrons of hate towards the media continue to undermine and belittle the rights of a free press.

Even though the constitution of India promises freedom of expression to its citizens, the government has often failed to protect those who tried to voice the truth. Increasingly the work of journalists is also thwarted by the government’s use of Section 353 of the Indian penal code. The charge of obstructing a public servant on duty is the easiest to level against anyone even asking questions of public officials. And Indian journalists are increasingly being booked under it.

Today, social and digital media have become the fastest purveyors of news. One would think that these would aid journalists to speak more freely and engage their readers on open interactive platforms. However, these have also become platforms of hate for those who despise facts and those who seek to make personal attacks against individual journalists and media organizations.

The ‘Hindu nationalists’ and supporters of Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) openly use social media to harass journalists. According to the Quartz India website, a Quint India journalist was subjected to online harassment. The fanatics even issued rape and death threats against her which caused her story being pulled off the site. Similarly, Dhanya Rajendran of The News Minute website was subjected to offensive tweets. The tag – #PublicityBeepDhanya received over 30,000 tweets, reports Quartz India.

This is just the tip of the iceberg; the magnitude of the situation is horrifying. The New Indian Express website reports that when the murderers of Lankesh were arrested, a hit list of ‘anti-Hindu’ journalists prepared by members of the unnamed crack team came to light. The list included 34 names given by the arrested team who were trained to ‘save Hindu religion’ by the assasinations.

With both online and actual physical intimidation and threats to journalists, what could possibly be the remedy? Threats, attacks and murders of journalists remain unaccounted for. This raises the open-ended question – whether the Indian media is actually free to report the truth, or whether freedom of expression will remain one of the great myths in the world’s largest democracy?

Naresh Khanna with inputs from AM

2023 promises an interesting ride for print in India

Indian Printer and Publisher founded in 1979 is the oldest B2B trade publication in the multi-platform and multi-channel IPPGroup. While the print and packaging industries have been resilient in the past 33 months since the pandemic lockdown of 25 March 2020, the commercial printing and newspaper industries have yet to recover their pre-Covid trajectory.

The fragmented commercial printing industry faces substantial challenges as does the newspaper industry. While digital short-run printing and the signage industry seem to be recovering a bit faster, ultimately their growth will also be moderated by the progress of the overall economy. On the other hand book printing exports are doing well but they too face several supply-chain and logistics challenges.

The price of publication papers including newsprint has been high in the past year while availability is diminished by several mills shutting down their publication paper and newsprint machines in the past four years. Indian paper mills are also exporting many types of paper and have raised prices for Indian printers. To some extent, this has helped in the recovery of the digital printing industry with its on-demand short-run and low-wastage paradigm.

Ultimately digital print and other digital channels will help print grow in a country where we are still far behind in our paper and print consumption and where digital is a leapfrog technology that will only increase the demand for print in the foreseeable future. For instance, there is no alternative to a rise in textbook consumption but this segment will only reach normality in the next financial year beginning on 1 April 2023.

Thus while the new normal is a moving target and many commercial printers look to diversification, we believe that our target audiences may shift and change. Like them, we will also have to adapt with agility to keep up with their business and technical information needs.

Our 2023 media kit is ready, and it is the right time to take stock and reconnect with your potential markets and customers. Print is the glue for the growth of liberal education, new industry, and an emerging economy. We seek your participation in what promises to be an interesting ride.

– Naresh Khanna

Subscribe Now
Previous articleHunkeler Innovationdays, Lucerne – 25 to 28 February 2019
Next articleFIT TO PRINT
Editor of Indian Printer and Publisher since 1979 and Packaging South Asia since 2007. Trained as an offset printer and IBM 360 computer programmer. Active in the movement to implement Indian scripts for computer-aided typesetting. Worked as a consultant and trainer to the Indian print and newspaper industry. Visiting faculty of IDC at IIT Powai in the 1990s. Also founder of IPP Services, Training and Research and has worked as its principal industry researcher since 1999. Author of book: Miracle of Indian Democracy.


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here